Capnodium Mont., Annls Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 11: 233 (1849)
= Conidioxyphium Bat. & Cif., Quad. Lab. crittogam., Pavia 31: 72 (1963)
Dothideomycetes, Dothideomycetidae, Capnodiales, Capnodiaceae
Saprobic or parasitic on the host plant. Sexual morph: see Chomnunti et al. (2011). Asexual morph: Conidiomata dark brown to black, pycnidial, solitary to gregarious, superficial, flask-shaped or elongated, unilocular, glabrous, often with a basal sterile stalk. Ostiole circular, apical, surrounded by hyaline hyphae. Stalk wall composed of thick-walled, dark brown, parallel columns, longitudinally elongated cells of textura porrecta. Pycnidial wall composed of brown to pale brown, cuboid to longitudinally elongated pseudoparenchyma. Conidiophores arising from inner layer of the base and sides of the pycnidial wall, hyaline, cylindrical to subcylindrical, unbranched, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, enteroblastic, phialidic, cylindrical to dolliform, integrated, determinate, smooth-walled. Conidia hyaline, ellipsoid to cylindrical, unicellular (Sutton 1980, Chomnunti et al. 2011).
Type species: Capnodium citri Berk. & Desm., in Berkeley, Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 4: 11 (1849)
Notes: Chomnunti et al. (2011) synonymized Conidioxyphium with Conidiocarpus Woron. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction based on LSU, SSU and ITS sequence data showed that Conidioxyphium gardeniarum (type species of Conidioxyphium) is closely related to Capnodium (Fig. 53). This result is in accordance with Liu et al. (2015). Morphologically, Conidioxyphium gardeniarum has elongated pycnidia adjacent to basal stalk; unlike those species in Conidiocarpus which have globose pycnidia adjacent to upper half part (Sutton 1980, Crous et al. 2009). Based on both morphology and phylogeny, Conidioxyphium is regarded as a synonym of Capnodium, thus a new combination Capnodium gardeniarum is introduced for this taxon. Microxiphium aciculiforme (CBS 892.73) also clustered with Capnodium taxa (Chomnunti et al. 2011, Liu et al. 2015, Hongsanan et al. 2015, this study), thus a new combination Capnodium aciculiforme is introduced for this taxon. Besides, a new species Capnodium paracoartatum is introduced.
Distribution: France, Germany, Thailand, USA, (Sutton 1980, Chomnunti et al. 2011, Hongsanan et al. 2015, this study).
Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Dai DQ, Caporesi E, Tian Q, Maharachcikumbura SSN, Luo ZL, Shang QJ, Zhang JF, Tangthirasunun N, Karunarathna SC, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2020) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: pages279–801.