Colletotrichum Corda, in Sturm, Deutschl. Fl., 3 Abt. (Pilze Deutschl.) 3(12): 41 (1831)
Sordariomycetes, Hypocreomycetidae, Glomerellales, Glomerellaceae
Endophytic, parasitic or saprobic on the host plant. Sexual morph: see Yamamoto (1961), Guerber and Correll (2001), Hou et al. (2016), Ma et al. (2018), Damm et al. (2019). Asexual morph: Conidiomata dark brown to black, acervular, solitary, gregarious or confluent, semi-immersed to erumpent, subglobose, glabrous, unilocullar, black, thick–walled, smooth-walled. Conidiomatal wall composed of thick-walled, dark brown cells of textura globulosa to textura epidermoidea or textura porrecta, textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells arising from the basal stroma, hyaline, enteroblastic, phialidic, cylindrical to subcylindrical, determinate, smooth-walled. Conidia hyaline, ellipsoid or falcate, straight or slightly curved, thick- and smooth-walled, guttulate. Appressoria brown, entire or with crenate to irregular margins, simple or repeatedly germinating to produce complex columns of several closely connected appressoria (the description of appressoria from Sutton 1980).
Type species: Colletotrichum lineola Corda, in Sturm, Deutschl. Fl., 3 Abt. (Pilze Deutschl.) 3(12): 41 (1831)
Notes: Colletotrichum is a coelomycetous genus with Glomerella sexual state (Hyde et al. 2014). There are 193 accepted species in eleven species complexes and 23 accepted singleton species (Hyde et al. 2014, Ma et al. 2018). Colletotrichum species can occur on plants as fungal endophytes, parasites, pathogens or saprobes and are reported from temperature to tropical areas (Vucinic and Latinovic 1997, Hyde et al. 2009, Huang et al. 2009, 2013, Ma et al. 2018, Rashmi et al. 2019). Colletotrichum species can cause anthracnose which is a devastating disease in many economically important crops (Cai et al. 2009, Cannon et al. 2012, Jayawardena et al. 2016). Colletotrichum was regarded as the eighth most important plant pathogenic genus in the world considering their perceived scientific and economic importance (Dean et al. 2012). They have also been found as fungal endophytes in angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns and lichens (Li et al. 2007, Cannon et al. 2012, Damm et al. 2012a, Hyde et al. 2014). Many Colletotrichum species adopt biotrophic life strategies in living plant tissues (Photita et al. 2004, Yang et al. 2009). Confused morphological features, ambiguous species boundaries and incorrectly named sequences in NCBI often make it difficult to identify species in Colletotrichum (Cai et al. 2009, Hyde et al. 2014, Liu et al. 2016). Therefore, a multi-gene (ITS, GDPH, TUB2, ApMat, GS, ACT) phylogenic analysis method combined with morphological characteristics was proposed for species resolution in this genus (Cai et al. 2009, Hyde et al. 2014, Hou et al. 2016, Ma et al. 2018, Damm et al. 2019). We include a new record of Colletotrichum sansevieriae from Thailand.
Distribution: worldwide (Hyde et al. 2009, Cannon et al. 2012, Damm et al. 2012a, 2012b, 2019, Liu et al. 2015, 2016, Jayawardena et al. 2016).
Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Dai DQ, Caporesi E, Tian Q, Maharachcikumbura SSN, Luo ZL, Shang QJ, Zhang JF, Tangthirasunun N, Karunarathna SC, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2020) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: pages279–801.