Tympanis Tode, Fung. mecklenb. sel. (Lüneburg) 1: 24 (1790)
Leotiomycetes, Leotiomycetidae, Leotiales, Tympanidaceae
Saprobic or parasitic on the host plant. Sexual morph: Apothecia black, gregarious, separate or cespitose in small clusters, erumpent, sessile, glabrous. Asci 8-spored or multi-spored, cylindrical, with obtuse apex and narrow base, pedicellate. Ascospores hyaline, uniseriate, cylindrical to allantoid or ellipsoid to fusiform, 1-septate. Paraphyses hyaline, filiform, with slightly swollen apex, simple or branched, embedded in a brownish, gelatinous matrix, forming an epithecium (Groves 1952). Asexual morph: Conidiomata dark brown to black, stromatic, gregarious, separate or cespitose, immersed to erumpent, sessile, ovoid to subglobose or sometimes conical, unilocular or multilocular, glabrous. Ostiole absent, dehiscence by irregular splits of the apical wall. Conidiomatal wall composed of thick-walled, brown to dark brown cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores arising from the inner layer cells of the locular wall, hyaline, filiform, branched, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, enteroblastic, phialidic, integrated or discrete, determinate, smooth-walled. Conidia hyaline, cylindrical, unicellular, smooth-walled (Sutton & Funk 1975, Nag Raj 1977, Sutton 1980).
Type species: Tympanis saligna Tode, Fung. mecklenb. sel. (Lüneburg) 1: 24 (1790)
Notes: Groves (1952) revised Tympanis and accepted 36 taxa and one variety, of which 23 were studied in culture. He established the connection between sexual morph Tympanis and asexual morph Pleurophomella Höhn. on the basis of culture study. Sutton & Funk (1975) re-studied the isotype of Sirodothis populi Clem. (type of Sirodothis) and considered Pleurophomella was congeneric with Sirodothis. Because Sirodothis has priority, Pleurophomella was reduced to a synonym (Sutton & Funk 1975, Sutton 1980, Cole & Kendrick 1981). Sirodothis populi (= S. populnea (Thüm.) B. Sutton & A. Funk) was linked to its sexual morph T. spermatiospora based on culture studies (Groves 1952). Sirodothis saligna (Höhn.) B. Sutton & A. Funk was linked to T. saligna (type of Tympanis). According to one fungus = one name initiative, Johnston et al. (2014) and Wijayawardene et al. (2017b) proposed the generic name Tympanis for conservation over Sirodothis and Pleurophomella. We provide a detailed description of asexual morph of Tympanis. Molecular studies are needed to evaluate this genus.
Distribution: worldwide (Wijayawardene et al. 2017).
Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Dai DQ, Caporesi E, Tian Q, Maharachcikumbura SSN, Luo ZL, Shang QJ, Zhang JF, Tangthirasunun N, Karunarathna SC, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2020) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: pages279–801.