Aposphaeria Sacc., Michelia 2(6): 4 (1880)
Facesoffungi number: FoF 00756
Dothideomycetes, Pleosporomycetidae, Pleosporales, Melanommataceae
Saprobic on the host plant in terrestrial habitat. Sexual morph: see Tibpromma et al. (2017). Asexual morph: Conidiomata black, stromatic, pycnidial, solitary to gregarious or confluent, immersed to semi-immersed to superficial, globose to subglobose, unilocular or multilocular, glabrous, ostiolate. Ostiole circular, centrally located. Conidiomatal wall composed of thick-walled, dark brown to hyaline cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores arising from the inner cavity of the conidiomata, hyaline, cylindrical, branched at the base, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, enteroblastic, phialidic, cylindrical, integrated or discrete, determinate, smooth-walled, with terminal or lateral apertures. Conidia hyaline, cylindrical to ellipsoidal, unicellular, smooth, guttulate (Sutton 1980).
Type species：Aposphaeria pulviscula (Sacc.) Sacc., Michelia 2(6): 4 (1880)
Notes: Sutton (1980) and Tian et al. (2015) redescribed and illustrated the generic type of Aposphaeria. More than 200 taxa are included in Aposphaeria, but most of them have not been re-studied (Sutton 1980). De Gruyter et al. (2013) showed that Aposphaeria was phylogenetically related to Melanommataceae, and Tian et al. (2015) accepted Aposphaeria as a separate genus in this family. Hashimoto et al. (2017) re-circumscribed Melanommataceae and accepted Melanomma Nitschke ex Fuckel sensu stricto in the family; Aposphaeria and other genera accepted by Tian et al. (2015) however, were placed in Pleosporales incertae sedis. However, Wanasinghe et al. (2018) adopted a broad concept as did Tian et al. (2015) and included Aposphaeria in Melanommataceae. A fresh collection (MFLU 16-2412) from Russia shares similar mophology and phylogeny with A. corallinolutea, and is thus an additional collection. We accept Aposphaeria as a member of Melanommataceae, at least until an eptype of A. pulviscula is designated. We provide a detailed description and plate for A. corallinolutea.
Distribution: Australia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, UK, USA (De Gruyter et al. 2013, Li et al. 2016, this study, https://www.gbif.org/).
Phylogenetic tree generated from a maximum likelihood analysis based on a concatenated alignment of LSU, tef1, rpb2 and SSU sequences data of Aposphaeria and related genera. The newly generated nucleotide sequences were compared against the GenBank database via blast search. Related sequences were obtained from Wanasinghe et al. (2018), Tian et al. (2015) and GenBank. Forty-one strains are included in the analyses, which comprise 3396 characters including gaps (LSU: 1–810, rpb2: 811–1463, tef1: 1464–2416, SSU: 2417–3396). Hysterium angustatum CBS 236.34 and CBS 123334 were used as the outgroup taxa. The tree topology of the maximum likelihood analysis is similar to the Bayesian analysis. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final optimization likelihood value of -14254.356813 is presented. The matrix had 782 distinct alignment patterns, with 28.01% of undetermined characters or gaps. Estimated base frequencies were: as follows A = 0.250571, C = 0.240061, G = 0.275397, T = 0.233970; substitution rates AC = 1.127507, AG = 4.180424, AT = 0.956643, CG = 1.037671, CT = 9.714674, GT = 1.000000; gamma distribution shape parameter α = 0.136490. Maximum likelihood (MLBS) bootstrap support values higher than 50%, and Bayesian posterior probabilities ≥ 0.95 (PP) are shown above or below the nodes. Hyphen ("–") indicates a value lower than 50% for MPBS and MLBS and a posterior probability lower than 0.95 for BYY. The scale bar indicates 0.04 changes. Ex-type or ex-epitype strains are in bold. The new isolates are highlighted.
Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Dai DQ, Caporesi E, Tian Q, Maharachcikumbura SSN, Luo ZL, Shang QJ, Zhang JF, Tangthirasunun N, Karunarathna SC, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2020) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: pages279–801.