Xylariales » Polystigmataceae


Polystigma DC., in de Candolle & Lamarck, Fl. franç., Edn 3 (Paris) 6: 164 (1815)

= Polystigmina Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 3: 622 (1884)

Facesoffungi number: FoF03519

Sordariomycetes, Sordariomycetidae, Xylariales, Polystigmataceae


Parasitic on the host plant. Sexual morph: see Cannon (1966). Asexual morph: Conidiomata yellow-orange, pseudostromatic, pycnidial, scattered to gregarious, immersed, globose in section view, unilocular to multilocular or convoluted, glabrous. Ostiole single to each locule, circular, depressed, centrally located. Conidiomatal wall composed of thin-walled, hyaline cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores formed from the inner wall layer of the conidiomata, hyaline, cylindrical to subcylindrical, straight or slightly curved, branched, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells hyaline, holoblastic, sympodial to synchronous, cylindrical or irregular, integrated or discrete, indeterminate, smooth-walled, with several irregular nodulose conidiogenous loci towards apices. Conidia hyaline, filiform, hamate, tapered towards the apices, unicellular, smooth-walled, guttulate (adapted from Sutton 1980).


Type species: Polystigma rubrum (Pers.) DC., in de Candolle & Lamarck, Fl. franç., Edn 3 (Paris) 5/6: 164 (1815)

= Polystigmina rubra (Pers.) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 3: 622 (1884)


Notes: Polystigmina rubra is the type species of Polystigmina. Species of Polystigmina has been linked to sexual morph in Polystigma (Sutton 1980, Cannon 1966, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2016, Dayarathne et al. 2017). The correlation between these two genera has been confirmed by inoculation tests, field observations and DNA sequence (Suzuki et al. 2008, Habibi and Banihashemi 2016). Polystigmina is reduced to a synonym of Polystigma, as the later has priority and is of economic importance (Réblová et al. 2016, Wijayawardene et al. 2017b). The asexual morph of Polystigma has hyaline, hamate conidia, which can be confused with asexual morph of Tryblidiopsis pinastri (= Tryblidiopycnis pinastri). However, the latter is distinguished by its black conidiomata and sympodial conidiogenous cells that are percurrent, rather than proliferate sympodially.

The genus Polystigma is polyphyletic, with species clustering in Phyllachorales, Trichosphaeriales and Xylariales (Habibi et al. 2015, Mardones et al. 2017). Dayarathne et al. (2017) designated a reference specimen for P. rubrum, and placed Polystigma in Polystigmataceae (Xylariales) with descriptions, illustrations and molecular data. Polystigma species are serious leaf pathogens, causing almond red leaf blotch on almonds, Prunus cerasifera, and P. ssiori (Rosaceae) (Suzuki et al. 2008, Habibi and Banihashemi 2016, Dayarathne et al. 2017).


Distribution: Worldwide (Farr and Rossman 2016)


Polystigma rubrum (asexual morph: redrawn from Sutton 1980) a Conidiophores, conidiogenous cells and developing conidia. b Conidia.





Li WJ, McKenZie EHC, Liu JK, Bhat DJ, Dai DQ, Caporesi E, Tian Q, Maharachcikumbura SSN, Luo ZL, Shang QJ, Zhang JF, Tangthirasunun N, Karunarathna SC, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2020) Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 100: pages279–801.


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